What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
The story in regards to the cognitive processes began in
1948, when a group of educators embarked on the journey of categorizing
educational goals and objectives. Their main area of interest was three domains
which needed to be classified. They were: the cognitive, the affective, and the
psychomotor. So when the classification was finished and the work came to an
end the cognitive domain surfaced in the 1950s and was known as Bloom's Taxonomy
of the Cognitive Domain. There were other taxonomies developed in the process
as well but by a group of other educators who focused their interest on
affective and psychomotor domains.
Before we go any further it is important to know what
taxonomy means as it is not every day you hear this word and it may be that
most people will never even use this word. The word “taxonomy” simply means a
certain way to group things together. For e.g. in biology classes’ Linnaean
taxonomy is most renowned where you have a bunch of animals and you can group
them according to various characteristics and give them or assign them names.
Bloom's taxonomy is somewhat similar to this where three domains were
classified as follows:
- The cognitive – which is a knowledge based domain, comprising of six levels
- The affective – which is an attitudinal based domain, comprising of five levels, and
- The psychomotor – which is a skills based domain, comprising of six levels
Exams are an extremely important component
of American education. Students must take tests to demonstrate proficiency in a
subject area. Exams are also a primary means of determining who gets into
We educators begin testing students at
early ages. Those who perform well end up with an advantage in life. We place
them in advanced classes while in elementary school. There, they learn things
that can place them on the right path to academic success. Others, who perhaps
do not perform as well on our tests, can go in the opposite direction.
With so much riding on exams, it is only
fair for those of us in the teaching professions wonder if we can make testing
more student-friendly. We explore that issue, but first, let us consider how
the current emphasis on tests developed.
A Brief History of Modern Testing
Measuring aptitude became a national
concern during World War I. The Army wanted
to know the “intelligence” of its recruits. This knowledge would allow them to
place the soldiers in the right positions, they believed.
The use of intelligence tests continued
after World War II. A major reason was the growth of the military industrial
complex. During the war, the government invested heavily in the Manhattan
Project to create the Atomic Bomb. This weapon, though horrific, helped end the
war, saving many lives that would have been lost during the planned invasion of
the Japanese mainland.
Experiential Learning - Being Able to Know First Hand is Key to Fun Learning.
A school-age boy stepped on something in his local creek. Imagine the "cool" factor of actually stepping on an abandoned mastodon tooth in your neighborhood creek bed one hot summer day just before lunch! The lucky 9-year old kid who had that experience will never look at a creek, a tooth or anything referring to mastodons - in the same way again! Because our little guy was able with a single step to transform an ordinary creek bed into an outdoor classroom, his approach to learning has been transformed as well. The questions that are posed to educators are: should learning be fun, and what are the best ways to make learning fun? We cannot all go through life looking for lucky educational creek beds, but we can approach the world as an open classroom, ready for people of all ages to dive in and learn as they have never learned before!
Experiential Learning is Key to Grabbing the Attention of Students of All Ages.
Back in education past, written learning and repetition were the most common methods of teaching and learning a school lesson. Students had to learn, memorize, and then regurgitate their lesson contents to be able to pass to a higher grade. Somewhere along the way, educators realized that there was a more effective way to teach lessons and reach students. The course of classroom education changed for the better. Students began to use regular textbooks, which were written with the student in mind. As the learning began to drift away from the “wrote” style of teaching and learning, education and research began to bloom. As the educators themselves began to explore teaching and learning methods, students began to engage differently with their school materials.
When people, especially fathers, mothers, and busy working professionals think about going back to class, many see no way of squeezing campus into their already hectic routines. Taking online classes can help with that time crunch and save these people several hours every week, which they can convert into home study time. The courses are a perfect way for busy people to gain advanced certifications and training or even switch career paths. They are an effective way for first time job seekers who require specialized training to improve their job prospects. However, for you to excel, you need to take note of the following five tips to help you succeed in an online course.
Assessment of educational processes is one of the most important methods in monitoring of teaching and quality control strategies.
Quite a number of monitoring and assessment methods and approaches are used in the educational system. Monitoring of teaching and learning strategies is mainly the responsibility of the educational institution. The assessment may also be carried out by any researcher, group of researchers, international organization or by a governmental or international program interested in one or another issue. However, the fact is that the monitoring is just able to give unilateral or global assessment. It cannot draw a complete picture of the dynamics of daily teaching activities.
In the second half of the twentieth century, a system, called 360-degree feedback was founded, which has been widespread throughout all western countries. This system, also known as the all-round and multilateral system, means involvement of all participants into monitoring and assessment processes and detailed analyses of findings.
Assessment Method of the Educational Processes
According to the modern approaches to monitoring and assessment activities, assessment done by a student - a key person in educational processes, since popularization of multilateral appraisal tendencies, is extremely important. All the leading schools in the West today regularly use the approach of Student’s Assessment of Educational Processes. Similar to 360-degree feedback method, it also has a history lasting just several decades. E.g. at Stanford University in the United States, Student’s Assessment approach was first used in the academic year of 1996-1997. From that time on, other leading schools started to apply this approach and today, assessment of educational processes by students is considered to be an integral part of the Western educational systems.
Social skills are not inherent and needs hard work for development. School and teacher should do their duty in development of child and to teach them ability of using these skills in real life. Students develop social skills by collaborative learning. Students that are in collaborative groups study not only various disciplines in academic program, but also learn interpersonal relationship skills. Studying social skills is the requirement for academic success: more they learn the art of mutual aid in study, more their attendance is better. Therefore, establishing social skills happens in collaborative situations, where task should be done jointly.
Four different types of skills that are necessary for collaborative learning
- Skills that are the simplest rules of behavior. Without such skills, it is hard to say concerning collaboration and creative group;
- Skills that are necessary in the process of work for active involvement of all members of group and for maintenance of productive work relations;
- Skills of cognitive, motivated attitude for acquiring knowledge;
- Skills that stipulate creative and critic approach to knowledge. Skills of logical thinking and intellectual solving of conflicts, searching additional information and finding rational kernel in different views.
Child spends half of his life at school. He acquires not only new knowledge but learns how to build relations with coevals and teachers. Frequently student refuses to go to school only because teacher’s unfounded critics or teacher being too commanding. Due to complicated conflicts, children may demand to switch school. In order to avoid that parents and students should be aware that all teachers have different characters.
While the child is primary school pupil, more frequently he may be in contact only with one teacher. If the teacher is reasonable, kind, attentive, creative and understanding the child will not get bored at school during the first years of studying at least. Things get complicated when child enters higher classes and starts communication with other teachers.
In schools, children often suffer physical or psychological terror from the other kids. This phenomenon occurs for both girls and boys. Victims are mostly primary school children. Such interdependence between adolescents' is referred to as a “bullying” by scientists. “Bullying”, means a physical or psychological terror on a child by his/her classmates or the group of other children. Those who “bully”, aim to intimidate and subdue their victims.
Adults often find it difficult to identify the bullying. They assume the child's real aggression as a game, this aggression is considered to be a natural part of child’s development, and mildly call the aggressive children as bullies. They tend to forget that this attitude may cause an irreparable physical or mental harm to the victim. Specialists believe that after violence youngster cannot be quickly cured, he/she might suffer a constant fear, anxiety, feel humiliated or depressed, his/her self-esteem can worsen. Besides the physical and psychological terror, the victims often miss the lessons, are late from the lessons, his/her academic standing worsens. Such children avoid participation into school public events, losing friends among their classmates. More than that - mental trauma may be receives by a child, which has not experienced violence directly, but has witnessed a terror. Such child is afraid of not to become a victim of the aggressor in the future.
Scientists believe that children-initiators of a bullying continue to demonstrate aggression in their adulthood, and often choose a criminal way of life.
In the 21st century, it is difficult to find a person who has not experienced the stress. In the rapidly changing informational environment, the number of stress causing factors and their negative impacts are increasing day by day. Therefore, it is important to know what the reasons for its occurrence are.
“Stress” firstly was described by the Canadian scientist Hans Selye, who defined it as General Adaptation Syndrome. According to Hans Selye, the body’s systems and functions of the organs weaken in this condition. In accordance with the modern definition, the "Stress" is the combination of those protective physiological reactions, which are generating in the body, in response to the harmful factors of the environment and to protect the body from the latter.
Please note that the stress not always has a negative effect on the body. The effect of short-term stress, which is due mainly to strong positive emotions, has a positive effect on the body and promotes its mobilization and activation. Prolonged stress (which continues for weeks, months or years) causes exhaustion of the vital forces and physiological dysfunction. In such cases, the organism cannot cope with the stress causing factors independently.
Nowadays all representatives of educational sphere agree on how important creative thought is. Creativity gives individual an opportunity not only perceiving the universe and its phenomenon in multiple ways, but also to aspire to new ideas, to make discoveries, to gain instant experiences. All this, in total, are the guarantee for the development of the universe.
Creativity is a wide notion, thus it is commonly argued to connect creativity with particular aspects. Creativity is considered to be as one of the aspects of intelligence but if we think over the diversity of intelligence then it becomes difficult to agree. (Howard Gardner „Theory of multiple intelligences" are sorting some type of intelligence: Linguistic, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalistic and Existential). As it is described in scientific literature, many factors influence on creativity, including environmental conditions. High degree of autonomy gives individual the opportunity to reveal creativity and it cannot be said about authoritarian environment.
Sometimes creativity is characterized as a “curved” thought that is distinguished from traditional, overall thought. Teacher – moderator plays important role in the class-room, who should use his/her own skills and multiple instruments and make school children becoming maximally creative.